The source was created by a BBC news reporter. The purpose of this was to give out information.
For the skilled perfumer, an exact copy of a natural fragrance is neither desirable nor appealing: Perfume is the ideal accessory for Wilde and other Veroneses triumph essay aesthetes who elevate art, imagination and culture over nature, and regard themselves as members of a higher order.
Epitomising the epoch, the decadent dandy leads a life of leisured refinement, shuns utility, and is dedicated to perfecting himself and his immediate environment.
Perfume is a manifestation of his aura of exclusivity, marking him off from the mass of common humanity. He collects precious artifacts and experiments with perfume, but also imitates the decadent dandyism of his mentor Lord Henry Wotton, an olfactory epicure who, Veroneses triumph essay Wilde, affects scented buttonholes and handkerchiefs.
Aubrey Beardsley is another dandy and arbiter of artifice. Some of his elegantly sinuous, sinister black-and-white drawings, executed by candlelight, graced the covers of The Yellow Book, the leading decadent journal of the s.
Synthetics are responsible for the creation of the more abstract, innovative perfumes of the 20th century, and in the 19th century they added notes such as vanilla, heliotrope, lilac and violet to a range of perfumes.
From the s and into the 20th century, synthetics also replaced traditional animalics such as musk, civet, castoreum and ambergris — secretions obtained respectively from the musk deer, civet cat, beaver and sperm whale — which had previously been used to add sensuality, depth and longevity to perfume.
Musk, derived from the abdominal gland of the male musk deer, is difficult to obtain without harming or killing the animal, so has been little used since the musk deer became an endangered and protected species in Even before that, it was an expensive, hard-to-source ingredient until the first synthetic musk was discovered by Albert Baur in while he was working with explosives, whereupon it quickly became adopted by perfumers as it was relatively cheap to produce.
Nitro-musks disappeared from use after due to concerns about their toxicity, and because their photo-sensitivity caused them to decompose; they have since been replaced by new kinds of synthetic musks. The other animalics have also all been replaced by synthetics. Ambergris, a grey tarry intestinal secretion produced by the sperm whale, does not involve an intrusive or harmful harvest, as it is mainly collected from beaches.
However, it is very rare and extremely expensive, so while it might be used in a few elite perfumes and by some independent artisan perfumers, a replacement synthetic such as ambroxan is usually employed instead. Synthetics have been around for more than years and are responsible for modern perfume as we know it, but the perfume industry tends to be tight-lipped about the matter.
Yet nearly all modern perfumes, even if they use some natural materials, contain a large proportion of synthetic ingredients, probably about 80 per cent in most instances. Most perfumers acknowledge that synthetics, far from being inferior to natural ingredients, enable them to achieve an olfactory complexity and staying power not possible with naturals alone.
There are natural perfumers creating specialist niche products, but even they will sometimes use small amounts of synthetic materials to enhance their creations. Yet low-quality naturals can smell bad, and it can be difficult to ensure the consistency of higher-grade ingredients. Some naturals such as jasmine, Bulgarian rose, tuberose and orris iris used in high-quality elite perfume are notoriously expensive because of their relative scarcity, and the intensive labour and other high production costs involved in their manufacture.
They also smell different depending on their geographical source, meaning that demand can outstrip supply. Synthetics are much easier and cheaper to produce, although they can be rare and costly too, especially when new on the market. Both natural and synthetic materials can prove irritant, and their use in perfumes today is strictly monitored and regulated by the International Fragrance Association IFRAwith potential offenders banned.
Many in the perfume industry would also argue that synthetics, being less resource-intensive, are more ecologically friendly.
The sourcing of rarer naturals such as sandalwood has been responsible for deforestation and ecological damage, with the result that many perfumers now avoid them and use synthetics instead. Replacing rarer botanical naturals with synthetics for environmental reasons follows the now established practice in Western perfumery of substituting synthetics for animal-derived ingredients.
Synthetic coumarin, for example, is nature-identical; it replicates a scent molecule found in tonka beans coumarou in French and in specific grasses and plants such as sweet woodruff, clover and meadowsweet.
It has the sweet, vanillic aroma of new-mown hay. Coumarin can be derived from tonka beans but it is a lot quicker and cheaper to synthesise it in the lab, and nature-identical synthetics have the advantage over naturally derived molecules of being purer.
Some synthetics are derived from modifying natural raw materials such as essential oils, while others, such as Calone, created inare entirely man-made. Calone has a watermelon-aquatic scent, and was used extensively in perfumes in the s for its fresh, marine nuances.
Such new molecules, if they create qualitatively new and desirable effects, are of great commercial value.
Fragrance companies might develop three or four of these a year, and they are exclusive to that company until the patent expires. Scents that fall into this category include Victorian favourites such as lily-of-the-valley, lilac, heliotrope and violets.
Wilde favoured a number of perfumes that almost certainly included synthetics. When the young poet Theodore Wratislaw visited him at Goring-on-Thames in Augusthe observed that: Oscar … joined me, clearly spraying himself with a scent which filled the room. I inquired its name.We will write a custom essay sample on Dunkirk-Not a Triumph?
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