His wife says he never regained conciousness, suffered no pain, and died a very few days later in a hospital near his home in New Jersey. Those of us who were priveleged to call him a close friend were rewarded by a man who was kind and gentle, a humble yet accomplished genius -- one who was willing to share his considerable and vast knowlege with those who were serious colleagues and musicians. Jack leaves behind a formidable legacy of compostions for solo piano, piano trio and chorales and other ensembles.
Key features[ edit ] A number of different kinds of argument map have been proposed but the most common, which Chris Reed and Glenn Rowe called the standard diagram,  consists of a tree structure with each of the reasons leading to the conclusion.
There is no consensus as to whether the conclusion should be at the top of the tree with the reasons leading up to it or whether it should be at the bottom with the reasons leading down to it. Each number represents a proposition premise or conclusion in the argument being diagrammed.
The other component is a set of lines or arrows joining the points. Each line arrow represents an inference. The whole network of points and lines represents a kind of overview of the reasoning in the given argument There is disagreement on the terminology to be used when describing argument maps,  but the standard diagram contains the following structures: Dependent premises or co-premises, where at least one of the joined premises requires another premise before it can give support to the conclusion: An argument with this structure has been called a linked argument.
Although independent premises may jointly make the conclusion more convincing, this is to be distinguished from situations where a premise gives no support unless it is joined to another premise.
Where several premises or groups of premises lead to a final conclusion the argument might be described as convergent. This is distinguished from a divergent argument where a single premise might be used to support two separate conclusions.
In the following diagram, statement 4 is an intermediate conclusion in that it is a conclusion in relation to statement 5 but is a premise in relation to the final conclusion, i.
An argument with this structure is sometimes called a complex argument. If there is a single chain of claims containing at least one intermediate conclusion, the argument is sometimes described as a serial argument or a chain argument.
In the following diagram, the contention is shown at the top, and the boxes linked to it represent supporting reasons, which comprise one or more premises.
The green arrow indicates that the two reasons support the contention: A box and line diagram Argument maps can also represent counterarguments. In the following diagram, the two objections weaken the contention, while the reasons support the premise of the objection: A sample argument using objections Representing an argument as an argument map[ edit ] Diagramming written text[ edit ] A written text can be transformed into an argument map by following a sequence of steps.
Put circles around the logical indicators. Supply, in parenthesis, any logical indicators that are left out. Set out the statements in a diagram in which arrows show the relationships between statements. Rewrite them as independent statements, eliminating non-essential words.
Identify which statements are premises, sub-conclusions, and the main conclusion. Provide missing, implied conclusions and implied premises. This is optional depending on the purpose of the argument map.
Put the statements into boxes and draw a line between any boxes that are linked. Indicate support from premise s to sub conclusion with arrows.
Diagramming as thinking[ edit ] Argument maps are useful not only for representing and analyzing existing writings, but also for thinking through issues as part of a problem-structuring process or writing process.
However, the technique did not become widely used, possibly because for complex arguments, it involved much writing and rewriting of the premises. Wigmore evidence chart, from Legal philosopher and theorist John Henry Wigmore produced maps of legal arguments using numbered premises in the early 20th century,  based in part on the ideas of 19th century philosopher Henry Sidgwick who used lines to indicate relations between terms.
Monroe Beardsley proposed a form of argument diagram in He also introduced terminology that is still current describing convergent, divergent and serial arguments. A Toulmin argument diagramredrawn from his Uses of Argument A generalised Toulmin diagram Stephen Toulminin his groundbreaking and influential book The Uses of Argument,  identified several elements to an argument which have been generalized.
The Toulmin diagram is widely used in educational critical teaching. In Beardsley, "arrows link reasons and conclusions but no support is given to the implication itself between them. There is no theory, in other words, of inference distinguished from logical deduction, the passage is always deemed not controversial and not subject to support and evaluation".
Thomas, whose book Practical Reasoning In Natural Language  introduced the term linked to describe arguments where the premises necessarily worked together to support the conclusion.
In addition, Thomas suggested showing reasons both for and against a conclusion with the reasons against being represented by dotted arrows. Thomas introduced the term argument diagram and defined basic reasons as those that were not supported by any others in the argument and the final conclusion as that which was not used to support any further conclusion.
The explicit premise 1 is conjoined with additional unstated premises a and b to imply 2. Michael Scriven further developed the Beardsley-Thomas approach in his book Reasoning.Bucharest Artists in Residence. 26/03// Marijn Ottenthof - Artist Talk Tomorrow, Marijn Ottenhof will give an artist talk to the students in the Photography and Video dept.
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