This test just might change your life… 1.
For more than years, people have speculated about how Lieutenant Colonel George A.
Custer and five companies of the 7th Cavalry were overwhelmed in southeastern Montana Territory by a combined force of Deciding what to write about and Cheyenne Indians on June 25, Yet, the controversy does not appear any closer to resolution today. A number of reasons have been given for the defeat: Custer disobeyed orders, disregarded the warnings of his scouts, violated the principles of warfare by dividing his command, was ambushed or was the victim of a conspiracy; internal regimental jealousies caused the defeat; the regiment was too tired to fight; there were too many raw recruits or too many Indians; the Indians had better weapons; or the Army had defective guns.
Most of the conjectures are moot, for they can be debated endlessly—with intellectual and emotional biases interfering with reasoned arguments. The Ordnance Department staged field trials of 89 rifles and carbines, which included entries from Peabody, Spencer, Freeman, Elliot and Mauser.
There were four primary contenders: Although repeating rifles such as the Spencer, Winchester and Henry had been available, particularly in the post-Civil War years, the Ordnance Department decided to use a single-shot system.
It was selected instead of a repeating system because of manufacturing economy, ruggedness, reliability, efficient use of ammunition and similarity to European weapons systems. Ironically, the board of officers involved in the final selection included Major Marcus A.
The guns were all tested for defective cartridges, endurance, accuracy, rapidity of fire, firing with excessive charges, and effects of dust and rust. The Springfield was the winner.
The Model carried by the 7th Cavalry was a carbine that weighed 7 pounds and had an overall length of 41 inches. The best effective range for this carbine was under yards, but significant hits still could be scored out to yards.
A bullet was driven out of the muzzle at a velocity of about 1, feet per second, with 1, foot-pounds of energy. The trapdoor Springfield could hurl a slug more than 1, yards and, with proper training, could be fired with accuracy 12 to 15 times per minute. Bythe percussion cap models were being converted for use with metallic cartridges.
Ordnance testing in narrowed the field to two final contenders: The Schofield won only in speed of ejecting empty cartridges. The Colt won in firing, sanding and rust trials and had fewer, simpler and stronger parts.
It had a muzzle velocity of feet per second, with foot-pounds of energy. Its effective range dropped off rapidly over 60 yards, however. The Colt became ubiquitous on the frontier.
Overall, the soldiers were pleased with their weapons. They seem to give great satisfaction. George Custer carried a Remington. French of Company M carried a. Bailey of Company I had a preference for a Dexter Smith, breechloading, single-barreled shotgun.
Identification of the Indian weapons is more uncertain. Participants claimed to have gone into battle with a plethora of arms—bows and arrows, ancient muzzleloaders, breechloaders and the latest repeating arms.
Bows and arrows played a part in the fight. Some warriors said they lofted high-trajectory arrows to fall among the troopers while remaining hidden behind hill and vale.
The dead soldiers found pincushioned with arrows, however, were undoubtedly riddled at close range after they were already dead or badly wounded.
The long range at which most of the fighting occurred did not allow the bow and arrow a prominent role. Not until archaeological investigations were conducted on the battlefield during the s did the extent to which the Indians used gunpowder weapons come to light. Modern firearm identification analysis revealed that the Indians had spoken the truth about the variety and number of weapons they carried.
Eagle Elk, an Oglala, started the battle with a Winchester. White Cow Bull, an Oglala, also claimed to have a repeater. There were 2, cartridges, cases and bullets recovered from the entire battlefield, which reportedly came from 45 different firearms types including the Army Springfields and Colts, of course and represented at least individual guns.
It appears that the Army was outgunned as well as outnumbered. Survivors of the remaining seven companies of the 7th Cavalry asserted that the Indians were equipped with repeating rifles and mentioned Winchesters as often as not.Writing the Ideal Eulogy for Your Father.
As you begin composing a eulogy for your father’s funeral or memorial service, feelings of anxiety are normal. You write a book by deciding first what you’re going to write and how you’re going to write it.
Staying motivated: Once you start writing, you will face self-doubt and overwhelm and a . Decisions are the heart of success and at times there are critical moments when they can be difficult, perplexing and nerve racking.
This side provides useful and practical guidance for making efficient and effective decisions in both public and private life. An impressively broad and serious guide to the psychology of thinking and deciding." Choice "This volume represents an impressive textbook that is worthy of consideration in courses on thinking and decision making.
How Do You Decide What To Write About? Some ideas, like this one, stew and ferment for a little while, other days I sit down and decide what to write about there and then.
Luckily something always comes to me. The idea I want to ask you about is what motivates you to write about a certain topic.
2 days ago · If I still wrote longhand, I would say with a mixture of joy and awe, ‘I picked up my pen and wrote something today!’ As it is, I opened my laptop, toyed with a few emails then found myself clicking.